Organizational citizenship behavior role in mediating the effect of transformational leadership on organizational performance in gold industry of Saudi Arabia
This paper mainly aims at investigating the mediating effect of organizational citizenship behaviour in the relationship between transformational leadership behaviour and organizational performance as well as the mediating effect of organizational citizenship behaviour in the relationship between psychological ownership, working environment, employee involvement, incentives, and employee motivation, and organizational performance. To achieve the objectives of the study, quantitative research approach was applied through a questionnaire specifically designed to collect primary information from the samples of the study, which consisted of (250) managers in gold shops in Jaddah. The collected data was analysed using SPSS 20.0 and Smart-PLS 3. The results showed that organization citizenship behaviour mediates the relationship between transformational leadership behaviour, psychological ownership and incentives, and organizational performance in the Saudi Arabian gold industry. Also, organization citizenship behaviour has no mediating effect on the relationship between working environment, employee involvement, employee motivation, and organizational performance in the Saudi Arabian gold industry. At the end of this study, the researcher recommended the need to encouraging the practice of organizational citizenship behaviours by developing a set of special regulations and instructions, and consider organizational citizenship behaviours as one of the important criteria in the annual performance appraisal models for employees, in addition to that, the quantitative method was adopted in this research to test research hypotheses, thus, future studies can rely on other methods qualitative or case study to verify the results of this research.
This work is licensed under a .
Agbozo, G. K., Owusu, I. S., Hoedoafia, M. A., & Atakorah, Y. B. (2017). The effect of work environment on job satisfaction: evidence from the banking sector in Ghana. Journal of Human Resource Management, 5(1), 12–18. http://doi.org/10.11648/j.jhrm.20170501.12
Ahmad, I., & Zafar, M. A. (2018). Impact of psychological contract fulfillment on organizational citizenship behavior: Mediating role of perceived organizational support. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 30(2), 1001–1015. http://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-12-2016-0659
Alfandi, A. M., & Alkahsawneh, M. S. (2014). The role of the incentives and reward system in enhancing employee’s performance “A case of Jordanian travel and tourism institutions”. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 4(4), 326. http://doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v4-i4/788
ALHussain, A. Z. (2011). Barriers to knowledge management in Saudi Arabia. The George Washington University.
Ali, A. (2009). Business and management environment in Saudi Arabia: challenges and opportunities for multinational corporations. Routledge. http://doi.org/10.4324/9780203883518
Alkahtani, A. (2015). Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and rewards. International Business Research, 8(4), 210. http://doi.org/10.5539/ibr.v8n4p210
AlKindy, A. M., Shah, I. M., & Jusoh, A. (2016). The impact of transformational leadership behaviors on work performance of omani civil service agencies. Asian Social Science, 12(3), 152. http://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v12n3p152
Almarhoon, A., Bin Mohdnoor, K., Abdalla, M., & Musbah, A. (2017). Effect of motivation on employees’ performance and employees’ commitment. International Journal of Management and Applied Science, 3(9), 39–43.
Alqatawenah, A. S. (2018). Transformational leadership style and its relationship with change management. Business: Theory and Practice, 19, 17. http://doi.org/10.3846/btp.2018.03
Amoatemaa, A. S., & Kyeremeh, D. D. (2016). Making employee recognition a tool for achieving improved performance: implication for Ghanaian universities. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(34), 46–52.
Bari, N., Arif, U., & Shoaib, A. (2013). Impact of non-financial rewards on employee attitude and performance in the workplace. A case study of business institutes of Karachi. International Journal of Sciencetific and Engineering Research, Pakistan, 4(7), 2554–2559.
Brandt, T., & Laiho, M. (2013). Gender and personality in transformational leadership context: An examination of leader and subordinate perspectives. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 34(1), 44–66. http://doi.org/10.1108/01437731311289965
Bushiri, C. P. (2014). The impact of working environment on employees’ performance, the case of Institute of Finance Management in Dar es Salaam [Doctoral dissertation, The Open University of Tanzania].
Campbell Pickford, H., Joy, G., & Roll, K. (2016). Psychological ownership: effects and applications. Saïd Business School RP 2016-32. http://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2893092
Campbell, J. W., Lee, H., & Im, T. (2016). At the expense of others: altruistic helping behaviour, performance management and transformational leadership. Public Management Review, 18(6), 795–818. http://doi.org/10.1080/14719037.2015.1045018
Chandani, A., Mehta, M., Mall, A., & Khokhar, V. (2016). Employee engagement: A review paper on factors affecting employee engagement. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 9(15), 1–7. http://doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i15/92145
Cheema, J. R., & Asrar-ul-Haq, M. (2017). Effects of staff participation, morale, and shortage on organisational performance: An international survey. Issues in Educational Research, 27(4), 677.
Chepkemoi, J. (2018). Effect of incentives on employee performance At Kenya forest service Uasin Gishu county. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM), 20(3), 26–32.
Chong, V. K., & Law, M. B. (2016). The effect of a budget-based incentive compensation scheme on job performance: the mediating role of trust-in-supervisor and organizational commitment. Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, 12(4), 590–613. http://doi.org/10.1108/JAOC-02-2015-0024
Cichorzewska, M., & Rakowska, A. (2017). Organizational citizenship behavior of Polish and Ukrainian civil servants – a comparative study. In Management Challenges in a Network Economy: Proceedings of the MakeLearn and TIIM International Conference 2017 (pp. 393−394). ToKnowPress.
Cooper, V. P. (2017). The impact of motivation, festival attachment, place attachment, and psychological ownership on volunteerism: Understanding the Traverse City Film Festival from the volunteer perspective [Master thesis, Iowa State University].
Devi, S. (2017). Impact of employee engagement on organizational performance: A study of select private sector banks. International Journal of Commerce and Management Research, 10–13.
Dinka, D. D. (2018). Organizational citizenship behaviour and employees’ performance assessment: the case of Dire Dawa University. American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Business, 4(1), 15. http://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajtab.20180401.13
Dobre, O. I. (2013). Employee motivation and organizational performance. Review of Applied Socio-Economic Research, 5(1).
Fogec, M. (2017). The experience of psychological ownership of the non-profit organization: Can it be predicted by self-investment and intimate knowledge of the non-profit organization and does it influence future donating behaviour and word of mouth? [Master’s thesis, Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Leiden University].
Guan, X., & Frenkel, S. (2018). How HR practice, work engagement and job crafting influence employee performance. Chinese Management Studies, 12(3), 591–607. http://doi.org/10.1108/CMS-11-2017-0328
Gunawan, R., & Febrianto, H. (2014). The impact of monetary and non-monetary incentives on employees’ motivation in PT XYZ’S finance function in Surabaya. iBuss Management, 2(2).
Hemaloshinee, V., & Nomahaza, M. (2017). Organizational citizenship behavior in hospitality industry: Bridging challenges, benefits and contribution. International Journal of Human Capital in Urban Management, 2(3), 243–250.
Huang, L. C., Ahlstrom, D., Lee, A. Y. P., Chen, S. Y., & Hsieh, M. J. (2016). High performance work systems, employee well-being, and job involvement: An empirical study. Personnel Review, 45(2), 296–314. http://doi.org/10.1108/PR-09-2014-0201
Jehanzeb, K., Rasheed, M. F., & Rasheed, A. (2012). Impact of rewards and motivation on job satisfaction in banking sector of Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(21).
Jha, S. (2014). Transformational leadership and psychological empowerment: Determinants of organizational citizenship behavior. South Asian Journal of Global Business Research, 3(1), 18–35. http://doi.org/10.1108/SAJGBR-04-2012-0036
Jun, S. Y. (2017). Mediating effect of social capital between transformational leadership behavior and organizational citizenship behavior in hospital nurses. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration, 23(5), 558–566. http://doi.org/10.11111/jkana.2017.23.5.558
Kazimoto, P. (2016). Employee engagement and organizational performance of retails enterprises. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 6(04), 516. http://doi.org/10.4236/ajibm.2016.64047
Khosravizadeh, O., Vatankhah, S., Alirezaei, S., Doosty, F., Mousavi Esfahani, H., & Rahimi, M. (2017). Organizational citizenship behavior and its relationship with psychological capital: a survey of hospital staffs. Evidence Based Health Policy, Management and Economics, 1(1), 24–31.
Klotz, A. C., Bolino, M. C., Song, H., & Stornelli, J. (2018). Examining the nature, causes, and consequences of profiles of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 39(5), 629–647. http://doi.org/10.1002/job.2259
Knies, E., Jacobsen, C., & Tummers, L. G. (2016). Leadership and organizational performance: State of the art and research agenda. In J. Storey, J. L. Denis, J. Hartley, & P. ‘t Hart (Eds.), Routledge companion to leadership (pp. 404–418). Routledge.
Kumari, P., & Thapliyal, S. (2017). Studying the impact of organizational citizenship behavior on organizational effectiveness. Human Resource Management, 4(1), 9–21.
Kurose, C. (2013). Motivation, behavior and perfomance in the workplace. George Washington University.
Kvitne, M. B. (2017). Development of organizational citizenship behavior and the effect of psychological contract fulfillment [Master’s thesis, University of Oslo].
Lazauskaite-Zabielske, J., Urbanaviciute, I., & Rekasiute Balsiene, R. (2018). From psychosocial working environment to good performance: the role of work engagement. Baltic Journal of Management, 13(2), 236–249. http://doi.org/10.1108/BJM-10-2017-0317
Liu, F., Chow, I. H. S., Xiao, D., & Huang, M. (2017). Crosslevel effects of HRM bundle on employee well-being and job performance: The mediating role of psychological ownership. Chinese Management Studies, 11(3), 520–537. http://doi.org/10.1108/CMS-03-2017-0065
Luu, T. T. (2017). CSR and organizational citizenship behavior for the environment in hotel industry: The moderating roles of corporate entrepreneurship and employee attachment style. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29(11), 2867–2900. http://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-02-2016-0080
Majeed, N., Ramayah, T., Mustamil, N., Nazri, M., & Jamshed, S. (2017). Transformational leadership and organizational citizenship behavior: Modeling emotional intelligence as mediator. Management & Marketing, 12(4), 571–590. http://doi.org/10.1515/mmcks-2017-0034
Mamdani, K. F., & Minhaj, S. (2016). Effects of motivational incentives on employees’ performance: A case study of banks of Karachi, Pakistan. South East Asia Journal of Contemporary Business, Economics and Law, 9(2), 32–39.
Mardani, A., Streimikiene, D., Zavadskas, E. K., Cavalaro, F., Nilashi, M., Jusoh, A., & Zare, H. (2017). Application of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to solve environmental sustainability problems: A comprehensive review and metaanalysis. Sustainability, 9(10), 1814. http://doi.org/10.3390/su9101814
Massoudi, A. H., & Hamdi, S. S. A. (2017). The consequence of work environment on employees productivity. Journal of Business and Management, 1(3), 35–42. http://doi.org/10.9790/487X-1901033542
Mildred, A. K. (2016). Effect of employee involvement on job performance at the kenya medical research institute (centre for global health research) kisumu [Doctoral dissertation, School of Business, University of Nairobi].
Mokhniuk, A. M. (2016). The impact of monetary rewards on the motivation of employees. Roczniki Ekonomiczne Kujawsko-Pomorskiej Szkoły Wyższej w Bydgoszczy, (9), 336–346.
Mustafa, M., Martin, L., & Hughes, M. (2016). Psychological ownership, job satisfaction, and middle manager entrepreneurial behavior. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 23(3), 272–287. http://doi.org/10.1177/1548051815627360
Muthike, C. (2016). The impact of employee engagement on organization performance: a case of Pact, Nairobi [Doctoral dissertation, United States International University-Africa].
Nabi, M. N., Islam, M., Dip, T. M., & Hassain, A. A. (2017). Impact of motivation on employee performances: a case study of Karmasangsthan bank Limited, Bangladesh. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(4), 57–78.
Ngugi, J. (2017). Role of working conditions on organizational citizenship behaviour in the banking industry: a survey of Barclays bank in North rift region. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM), 19(6), 23–37. http://doi.org/10.9790/487X-1906013237
Nunkoo, R. (2016). Toward a more comprehensive use of social exchange theory to study residents’ attitudes to tourism. Procedia Economics and Finance, 39, 588–596. http://doi.org/10.1016/S2212-5671(16)30303-3
Osisioma, H. E., Osisioma, B. C., & Chukwuemeka, E. E. (2012). Developing a conflict management model for the Nigerian executive. Singaporean Journal of Business, Economics and Management Studies, 51(1103), 1–19. http://doi.org/10.12816/0003730
Pan, X. F., Qin, Q., & Gao, F. (2014). Psychological ownership, organization-based self-esteem and positive organizational behaviors. Chinese Management Studies, 8(1), 127–148. http://doi.org/10.1108/CMS-04-2014-0088
Park, R. (2016). The roles of OCB and automation in the relationship between job autonomy and organizational performance: a moderated mediation model. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 29(6), 1–18. http://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2016.1180315
Pekaar, K. A., van der Linden, D., Bakker, A. B., & Born, M. P. (2017). Emotional intelligence and job performance: The role of enactment and focus on others’ emotions. Human Performance, 30(2–3), 135–153. http://doi.org/10.1080/08959285.2017.1332630
Peng, H., & Pierce, J. (2015). Job-and organization-based psychological ownership: Relationship and outcomes. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 30(2), 151–168. http://doi.org/10.1108/JMP-07-2012-0201
Potdar, B., Guthrie, J., Gnoth, J., & Garry, T. (2018). The role of psychological ownership in shoplifting prevention: An exploratory study. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 44, 253–265. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2018.07.015
Prabhakar, A. (2016). Analysis of high job satisfaction relationship with employee loyalty in context to workplace environment. IJAR, 2(4), 640–643.
PratimaSarangi, D., & Nayak, B. (2018). Employee engagement and its impact on organizational success – a study in manufacturing company, India. OSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM), 18(4), 52–57.
Rahmati, A., & Mohebi, M. D. (2016). Relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction of primary health care providers (behvarz). Electronic Journal of Biology, 13(1), 1–5.
Raja, U., Sheikh, R. A., Abbas, M., & Bouckenooghe, D. (2018). Do procedures really matter when rewards are more important? A Pakistani perspective on the effects of distributive and procedural justice on employee behaviors. Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée, 68(2), 79–88. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.erap.2018.03.001
Raziq, A., & Maulabakhsh, R. (2015). Impact of working environment on job satisfaction. Procedia Economics and Finance, 23, 717–725. http://doi.org/10.1016/S2212-5671(15)00524-9
Robescu, O., & Iancu, A. G. (2016). The effects of motivation on employees performance in organizations. Valahian Journal of Economic Studies, 7(2), 49–56. http://doi.org/10.1515/vjes-2016-0006
Ruganzi, D. (2017). Effect of Employee engagement on organizational performance: Case of African Evangelistic Enterprise [Doctoral dissertation, University of Rwanda].
Saad, D. (2018). Impact of employee motivation on work performance. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 8(3), 295–308. http://doi.org/10.29322/IJSRP.8.3.2018.p7544
Saudi Mining & Minerals. (2015). http://www.alsarabia.com/news/Saudi-Mining--Minerals-2015_500
Shahin, A., Shabani Naftchali, J., & Khazaei Pool, J. (2014). Developing a model for the influence of perceived organizational climate on organizational citizenship behaviour and organizational performance based on balanced score card. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 63(3), 290–307. http://doi.org/10.1108/IJPPM-03-2013-0044
Shanker, M. (2018). Organizational citizenship behavior in relation to employees’ intention to stay in Indian organizations. Business Process Management Journal, 24(3). http://doi.org/10.1108/BPMJ-02-2018-0048
Soane, E., Butler, C., & Stanton, E. (2015). Followers’ personality, transformational leadership and performance. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, 5(1), 65–78. http://doi.org/10.1108/SBM-09-2011-0074
Tufail, M. S., Muneer, S., & Manzoor, M. (2017). How organizational rewards and organizational justice affect the organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior: analysis of Pakistan service industries. City University Research Journal Special Issue: AIC, Malaysia, 171–182.
Veliu, L., Manxhari, M., Demiri, V., & Jahaj, L. (2017). The influence of leadership styles on employee’s performance. Management (16487974), 31(2). http://doi.org/10.33107/ubt-ic.2017.262
World Gold Council, (WGC). (2011). New research suggests higher allocations to gold could benefit portfolios in both inflationary and deflationary scenarios. World Gold Council and Oxford Economics, 11th July, London.
World Gold Council, (WGC). (2014). http://www.gold.org/news-and-events